THE LAWRENCE LIVERMORE REALISTIC PHANTOM
 
 
A worldwide reference standard for in-vivo counting
 
 
The Lawrence Livermore Realistic Phantom was developed under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, primarily as a reference standard for the in-vivo counting of emissions from low-energy transuranic nuclides.
The organs of interest are the lungs, liver and lymph nodes. Each of these may be radioactive or inert. These organs are accommodated in a male thorax generally similar to average adult males.
The Livermore phantom contains a synthetic bone skeleton molded within a 
soft-tissue-equivalent material. The organs are located in an internal cavity with a separate torso cover that closes the phantom. Anterior sections of ribs and the sternum are molded into this cover.
Soft-tissue-equivalent blocks are used to position the organs and fill significant air spaces, providing continuity of the soft-tissues throughout the phantom. The phantom is shipped assembled with inert organs. Any or all of these organs can be replaced with radioactive organs, which are shipped in separate packages.

Organs
All organs are made of soft-tissue equivalent materials. Lungs are available with the nuclides uniformly dispersed throughout the lung molding material. Optional organs (developed by RSD and not part of the original DOE specifications) are inert, but have holes in 2 cm2 grids. These either can be filled with inert plugs or with active capsules to establish any desired distribution within the lungs.
The liver has the same loading flexibility, but another option is available, designed for use with solutions having relatively short half-lives. This liver is a hollow shell with a fill/drain port.
If the liver is not required, it may be replaced with the Abdominal Contents, which is available solid, with a hole matrix, or active.
Lymph nodes are available as hollow shells or as active packets. Two are 8 mm in diameter by 17 mm long. A third is 13 mm in diameter by 25 mm long. They are
positioned in recesses molded in a lymph node block.

Chest Overlay Plates
Transuranic emissions from individuals with varying amounts of muscle and/or adipose tissue may be so attenuated as to be undetectable. Chest overlay plates were developed to ensure the validity of in-vivo counting of such individuals.
There are three sets of plates, each in four graded thicknesses. One set is equivalent to 87% adipose and 13% muscle, another is equivalent to 50% adipose and 50% muscle, and the third is equivalent to 100% muscle. Plates of each material and/or each thickness are available separately.

 
* Replaces Liver and Liver Envelope
 
Chest Overlay Plates
RS-513   Chest Overlay Plate (Any of 4 thicknesses)
(1,2,3,4)  #1 - thinnest, #4- thickest
(A,B,C)   A) 87% adipose - 13% muscle 
                B.) 50% adipose -50% muscle 
                C.) 100% muscle

RS-514    Chest Overlay Plates
(A,B,C)    Set of 4, in materials A, B or C

Capsules
RS-520    Active Capsule (isotope and activity to be specified)
RS-521    Inert Capsule with sealing cap, to be filled by user 

 

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