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Fully tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic phantom  

  • Anatomically accurate model of human striatum and head
  • Evaluates quantitative striatal imaging

This fully tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic striatal phantom is designed for evaluation of quantitative striatal imaging in humans using SPECT, PET or MRI. The phantom can be filled with radioactive or MRI-signal-producing solutions. Ligands labeled with C-11, F-18 or I-123 are routinely used for evaluation of human neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. 

The phantom allows the effects of the imaging system on receptor quantification to be investigated under conditions very similar to those in a patient. It can be used to optimize the imaging system for patient imaging and to examine many important issues related to receptor studies including: 


  • Quantification as a function of uptake ratio
  • Partial volume effects
  • Effects of scatter and scatter correction
  • Effects of attenuation-correction schemes
  • Detectability threshold for changes in uptake
  • Comparison of different acquisition modes

(e.g. 2-D vs 3-D PET) 

  • Design of different reconstruction strategies
  • Testing and validation of image registration techniques
  • Design of imaging protocol for patients
  • Multi-center studies

The phantom includes a transparent brain shell, contained inside an accurately modeled human head, and a set of fillable external markers.


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The brain shell has five compartments which can be filled separately: left and right nucleus caudate, left and right putamen, and the rest of the brain. This allows different nucleus caudate to putamen ratios as well as different striatal to background ratios to be obtained; this also permits differences between left and right striatal activity to be examined. The volumes of the nucleus caudate, putamen and the rest of the brain shell are 5.4, 6.0 and about 1,250 ml, respectively. 


The modeled human head includes both the soft-tissue substitute and the skull. The soft-tissue substitute is polyurethane, modified for tissue equivalence, with a mass density of 1.10 g/cc. The narrow beam linear attenuation coefficient measured at 140 keV (Tc-99m) is 0.160 cm-1 The RSD bone substitutes closely meet the standards of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) Report No.44 (Tissue Substitutes in Radiation Dosimetry and Measurement, 1989). The cortical bone has a mass density of 1.86 g/cc. The narrow beam linear attenuation coefficient measured at 140 keV is 0.280 cm-1. The nasal cavity and maxillary sinuses are filled with foam with a mass density of 0.23 g/cc. 


A set of fillable capsules is provided to serve as external markers. Capsules can be filled with a radioactive solution or CuSO4/NiCl2 and attached to the external surface of the phantom. The phantom can then be imaged using any combination of SPECT, PET or MRI modalities to compare image registration techniques.






Striatal Phantom with Transparent Brain Shell and set of fillable markers.


Transparent Brain Shell only with Striatum.


Elimpex-Medizintechnik, Spechtgasse 32, A-2340 Moedling, Austria
phone +43-2236-410450
fax +43-2236-410459