RSD ALDERSON HEART / THORAX PHANTOM FOR CARDIAC SPECT/PET/MRI & MAMMOSCINTIGRAHY

 
 

 

  

FEATURES:  

  • Fully tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic phantom 
  • Accurate anatomic heart model obtained from patient data 
  • Ideal for evaluation of detectability, extent and severity of myocardial infarcts in male and female patients 
  • Tests reconstruction techniques, non-uniform attenuation and scatter correction methods using different radionuclides under realistic conditions 
  • Tests mammoscintigraphy techniques

 
 

This fully tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic heart/thorax phantom is designed for cardiac SPECT/PET/MRI and mammoscintigraphy. The phantom can be filled with radioactive or MRI-signal-producing solutions.  

Radiopharmaceuticals, such as Tl-201, Tc-99m sestamibi, N-13 ammonia and F-18 FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose), are routinely used to assess myocardium at risk, infarct size and effectiveness of treatment. 

The phantom includes:  

1. Basic thorax  
2. Heart  
3. Lungs (perfusable and non-perfusable)  
4. Liver  
5. Fillable external markers  
6. Thorax overlay  
7. Removable breasts with breast tumors 

 
 

BASIC THORAX 

The thorax is molded of polyurethane, modified for tissue-equivalence, with a mass density of 1.10 g/cc. The narrow beam linear attenuation coefficient measured at 140 keV (Tc-99m) is 0.160 cm-1. 

The skeleton, embedded in the soft tissue, extends from the suprasternal notch down to L2. The RSD materials closely meet the standards of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) Report No.44 (Tissue Substitutes in Radiation Dosimetry and Measurement, 1989) for both the cortical and spongiosa components of the human skeleton. The mass densities of the cortical bone are 1.86 g/cc and of the spongiosa 1.16 g/cc, respectively. The narrow beam linear attenuation coefficient for the cortical component, measured at 140 keV, is 0.280 cm-1. 

The volume of the thoracic cavity, when all organs (heart, lungs and liver) are inserted, is about 8,200 ml. It is filled from the top, with either an inert or a radioactive solution, to simulate the thoracic background. 

A valve is installed at the base for conveniently draining the phantom. The residue on the walls of the cavity and organs may be flushed by running water, introduced by a hose attached to a fitting at the top of the phantom. A smaller fitting at the top is an air-bleed, opened during filling and closed during imaging.

  

  

  

  

  





Disassembled Heart with Standard Defects

  

HEART 

An accurately anatomic heart model is based on vacuum-formed shells. It was designed using high resolution, contrast-enhanced, ultrafast CT data from a normal patient, slightly modified to facilitate its use. 

The left and right chambers are connected at the atrium region to make a single compartment which can be filled and flushed independently using two ports labeled HC (heart chambers). The right ventricle is slightly modified to allow air to escape during filling. The myocardial wall (MW) has two ports, flushing and independent filling. The volume of the heart chambers is 284 ml, while the volume of the myocardial wall is 238 ml, without inserted defects. 

The standard model includes three defects with volumes of 8.9, 13.5 and 41.7 ml, respectively. Each of the defects can be filled separately. 

Defects of different dimensions can be ordered at no added cost. A disassembled heart is sent on request, so that dimensions of a special set can be established. Note that different defects cannot be retrofitted in the assembled heart.

 
 

Chest Overlay with Breasts showing Tumors, Rods & Bending Fixture

 

 

LUNGS 

There are two models of lungs molded in hollow, vacuum-formed shells: 

1. Light-purple, non-perfusable lungs are molded in a syntactic foam with a mass density of 0.30 g/cc. The narrow beam linear attenuation coefficient measured at 140 keV is 0.043 cm-1 

2. Yellow, perfusable lungs are molded in an open-cell foam with a mass density of 0.12 g/cc. The final mass density of 0.30 g/cc can be attained by varying the volume of radioactive solution through a filling port at the top of each lung shell. 

These two lung pairs are provided, but extra sets of lungs can also be furnished for work continuity. The volumes of the left and right lung shells are 907 ml and 1,134 ml, respectively. 

LIVER 

A liver with a volume of 980 ml is included to evaluate the effect of its uptake on quantitative myocardial imaging. It is a vacuum-formed shell, mounted on perforated nylon tubes. The liver is filled with a radioactive solution and is about 5 mm from the heart. 

FILLABLE EXTERNAL MARKERS 

A set of fillable capsules is provided to serve as external markers. Capsules can be filled with a radioactive solution or with CuSO4/NiCl2 and attached to the external surface of the phantom. It can then be imaged, using any combination of SPECT/PET/MRI modalities to compare image-registration techniques. 

THORAX OVERLAY, REMOVABLE BREASTS AND BREAST TUMORS 

The thoracic phantom without overlay simulates an average male patient. The overlay, with or without breasts, corresponds to a large female and a larger male patient, respectively. Using these features it is possible to evaluate the effect of additional attenuation and scatter on quantitative myocardial imaging. 

The volume of each vacuum-formed breast is 972 ml. A tumor filled with radioactivity can be inserted to evaluate planar and tomographic imaging techniques used for mammoscintigraphy. A set of breast tumors of 3, 5, 7, 9, 13 and 15 mm diameters is included. Tumors are supported by thin, threaded nylon rods which pass through ports and are sealed by 0-rings. A bending fixture is provided to permit the heated rod to be shaped to reach any part of a breast.

 

ORDERING INFORMATION

MODEL

DESCRIPTION 

RS-800T

Heart/Thorax Phantom for Nuclear Medicine (Includes: RS-801 through RS-810)

RS-801

Thoracic Cavity with bottom plate

RS-802

Non-Perfusable Lungs

RS-803

Perfusable Lungs

RS-804

Heart *

RS-805

Liver Shell Only

RS-806

Chest Overlay

RS-807

Removable Breast with a set of tumors

RS-808

Bending Fixture

RS-809

Set of 25 threaded nylon tumor support rods

RS-810

Set of 25 external fillable markers

 

* with three hollow defects in myocardial wall. Standard sizes or to customer specifications

 


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